Colorado OUT-OF-SCHOOL TIME NETWORK

Reports

Youth Development reports.

Youth Sexual Health in Colorado: A Call to Action (10-12)

Colorado youth, like youth across the country, face daily decisions about their bodies, minds, and overall health. The decisions youth make today set the stage for their health and success as adults. How they deal with challenges, how they achieve success, and how they talk with their families about their decisions are among the complex set of questions that young people ask and answer each day. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) has identified unintended pregnancy and the prevention of infectious diseases as two of Colorado’s ten Winnable Battles. This Call to Action offers health, educational, and economic strategies that will help improve the well-being of all Colorado youth. Authors/Publisher: Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. (2012). Youth Sexual Health in Colorado: A Call to Action. Denver, CO.

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Opportunity Road: The Promise and Challenge of America’s Forgotten Youth (1/2012)

On behalf of Civic Enterprises and the America’s Promise Alliance, Peter D. Hart Research Associates undertook a national cross-section of youth in 23 diverse locations across the United States in August 2011 to learn about common elements in their personal histories and their lives today, and to explore opportunities to reconnect them to work and school. At the time of the survey, respondents were ages 16 to 24, neither enrolled in school nor planning to enroll in the coming year, were not working, and had not completed a college degree. The central message of this report is that while these youth face significant life challenges, most start out with big dreams and remain confident or hopeful that they can achieve their goals; most accept responsibility for their futures; and most are looking to reconnect to school, work and service. They point the way to how they can effectively reconnect to education, productive work and civic life. Authors/Publisher: John M. Bridgeland and Jessica A. Milano. Civic Enterprises & America’s Promise Alliance in association with Peter D. Hart Research Associates. http://www.readyby21.org/news/information-update/americas-promise-report-jobless-youth-want-opportunities

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From Soft Skills to Hard Data: Measuring Youth Program Outcomes (10/2011)

Help practitioners choose conceptually grounded and psychometrically strong measures of important skills and dispositions that cut across academic achievement and other distal youth outcomes like risk behavior, mental health and employment. Report hopes to encourage the development of additional measures in areas where their review reveals gaps. Focus on four specific skill areas – communication, relationships and collaboration, critical thinking and decision making, and initiative and self-direction – by reviewing commonly cited frameworks developed by the Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL), the Partnership for 21st Century Skills and the U.S. Department of Labor. Authors/Publisher: Alicia Wilson-Ahlstrom, Nicole Yohalem, David DuBois, and Peter Ji. The Forum for Youth Investment. http://forumfyi.org/content/soft-skills-hard-data-

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The Impact of Alternative Grade Configurations on Student Outcomes through Middle & HS (9/11)

Used statewide administrative data from Florida to estimate the impact of attending public schools with different grade configurations on student achievement through grade 10. Based on an instrumental variable estimation strategy, we find that students moving from elementary to middle school suffer a sharp drop in student achievement in the transition year. These achievement drops persist through grade 10. We also find that middle school entry increases student absences and is associated with higher grade 10 dropout rates. Transitions to high school in grade nine cause a smaller one-time drop in achievement but do not alter students’ performance trajectories. Authors/Publisher: Guido Schwerdt, Harvard University, Ifo Institute for Economic Research and CESifo, and Martin R. West, Harvard Graduate School of Education.

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Helping Older Youth Succeed Through Expanded Learning Opportunities – HFRP/NCSL Brief (08-11)

ELOs work with schools, families and communities to help keep middle and high school youth engaged in learning. Sustaining the interest of older youth in learning is particularly critical given that nearly one in four students fails to graduate from high school on time.1 Research indicates that regular participation in quality ELOs can help keep older youth on a positive academic trajectory and support their successful graduation and transition into college and/or career. Brief presents several outcomes related to high school success and college readiness. Authors/Publisher: Erin Harris (HFRP), Sarah Deschenes (HFRP) and Ashley Wallace (NCSL). Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) and the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL).

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Collecting and Using Information to Strengthen Citywide Out-of-School Time Systems (8/2011)

A number of U.S. communities have been building citywide systems to make high-quality after-school programs more available to children. Many such efforts have shaped their work around the collection and analysis of current, credible data. This guide looks at the kinds of data cities are gathering, how they collect it and how they put it to use. Authors/Publisher: National League of Cities Institute for Youth, Education and Families and Harvard Family Research Project, funded by The Wallace Foundation. http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/after-school/coordinating-after-school-resources/Pages/collecting-and-using-information-to-strengthen-citywide-ost-systems.aspx

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AfterZone: Outcomes for Youth Participating in Providence’s Citywide After-School System (8/2011)

The AfterZone model has four key features. First, it employs a single set of quality standards and offers training and support to its providers. Second, it is structured around a neighborhood “campus” model, where services are offered at multiple sites in a geographically clustered area, known as a “zone.” Each zone includes several programs located in community-based facilities but is anchored by one or two middle schools, where the program day begins and ends for every youth. Third, the AfterZone’s structure and organizational practices are designed to be developmentally appropriate for middle-school-age youth, for instance, by encouraging greater independence and exposing youth to new experiences. Fourth, PASA not only coordinates the key players in the AfterZone system but also leads the check-in and check-out process each day at the zones it leads, provides its own academically oriented enrichment activities through “Club AfterZone” and employs AfterZone staff to supervise and coordinate these activities. Authors/Publisher: Tina J. Kauh. Public/Private Ventures for The Wallace Foundation http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/after-school/evaluations/Pages/AfterZone-Outcomes-for-YouthParticipating-in-Providences-Citywide-After-School-System.aspx

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Engaging Adolescents: Building Youth Participation in the Arts (2011)

Outlines a holistic approach that integrates arts learning with principles of youth development. It is designed to help staff and faculty develop new programs and services for teens or to rethink and strengthen programs they already offer. Authors: Ellen Hirzy, National Guild for Community Arts Education

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The Impact of Enhancing Students’ Social and Emotional Learning: A Meta-Analysis (1/2011)

Findings from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programs involving 270,034 kindergarten through high school students. Compared to controls, SEL participants demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance that reflected an 11-percentile-point gain in achievement. School teaching staff successfully conducted SEL programs. The use of 4 recommended practices for developing skills and the presence of implementation problems moderated program outcomes. The findings add to the growing empirical evidence regarding the positive impact of SEL programs. Policy makers, educators, and the public can contribute to healthy development of children by supporting the incorporation of evidence-based SEL programming into standard educational practice. Authors/Publisher: Joseph A. Durlak, Roger P. Weissberg, Allison B. Dymnicki, Rebecca D. Taylor, Kriston B. Schellinger. Child Development, V.82, Issue 1, January/February 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x/abstract

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Participation Over Time: Keeping Youth Engaged from Middle School to High School (Fall 2010)

The article sheds light on how a set of school- and community-based programs with high rates of participation address adolescents' developmental needs and how these programs change their strategies to support adolescents over time. Author/Publisher: Sarah Deschenes, Priscilla Little, Jean Grossman, Amy Arbreton. Harvard Family Research Project. This article appears in the Fall 2010 issue of Afterschool Matters, a journal published by the National Institute on Out-of-School Time (NIOST) http://www.hfrp.org/publications-resources/browse-our-publications/participation-over-time-keeping-youth-engaged-from-middle-school-to-high-school

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AfterZones: Creating a Citywide System to Support & Sustain High-Quality After-School Programs(4/10)

This report presents our analysis of the implementation of the AfterZone initiative—a citywide system-building effort in Providence, RI, that aims to provide high-quality, accessible out-of-school-time services to middle school youth.

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Engaging Older Youth: Program & City-Level Strategies to Support Sustained Participation in OST 4/10

This report examined three key questions: 1. What are the characteristics of high-participation OST programs that support sustained participation as measured by retention? 2. How do these characteristics differ for middle school and high school youth? 3. What strategies are city initiatives implementing to support access to programs and sustained participation, and how do OST programs perceive the usefulness of city-level strategies for achieving their participation goals? Author/Publisher: Sarah N. Deschenes, Amy Arbreton, Priscilla M. Little, Carla Herrera, Jean Baldwin Grossman, Heather B. Weiss, with Diana Lee. Harvard Family Research Project and Public/Private Venture. http://www.hfrp.org/publications-resources/browse-our-publications/engaging-older-youth-program-and-city-level-strategies-to-support-sustained-participation-in-out-of-school-time-research-synopsis

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Measuring Youth Program Quality: A Guide to Assessment Tools 2nd Ed. (1/2009)

This guide was designed to compare the purpose, structure, content and technical properties of several youth program quality assessment tools. this compendium will provide useful guidance to practitioners, policy makers, researchers and evaluators in the field as to what options are available and what issues to consider when selecting and using a quality assessment tool. Authors/Publisher: N. Yohalem and A. Wilson-Ahlstrom, The Forum for Youth Investment, with S. Fischer, New York University and M. Shinn, Vanderbilt University. The Forum for Youth Investment. www.forumfyi.org/files/MeasuringYouthProgramQuality_2ndEd.pdf

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Positive Youth Development: Supporting Colorado Youth to Reach Their Full Potential (2009)

“Positive youth development is an approach, not a program, that guides communities in developing and implementing services, opportunities and supports so that young people can be engaged and reach their full potential.”1 It is a conceptual and practical lens that can enhance prevention, intervention and treatment models. What makes this approach unique is that it “emphasizes the many positive attributes of young people and focuses on working to develop inherent strengths and assets in youth to promote healthy behavioral development.” Positive youth development depicts youth and young adults as resources to cultivate, not problems to fix, by incorporating guiding principles into programs. Authors/Publisher: Amy Engelman, Anne-Marie Braga, Schuyler Beauvais-Nikl, Jefferson County Open School, Adwai Eswaran, Cherry Creek High School, Andrew Fleming, Cherry Creek High School, Levi Jones-Carroll, Montbello High School, Laura Martinez, East High School, Jordan Valdez, Arvada West High School. CO Youth Development Team, CDPHE. http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/ps/adolschool/healthyyouthcolorado/PYDtoolbox.html

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The Positive Impact of Social and Emotional Learning for Kindergarten to 8th Grade Students (12/08)

This report summarizes results from three large-scale reviews of research on the impact of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs on elementary and middle-school students — that is, programs that seek to promote various social and emotional skills. Collectively the three reviews included 317 studies and involved 324,303 children. SEL programs yielded multiple benefits in each review and were effective in both school and after-school settings and for students with and without behavioral and emotional problems. Authors/Publisher: Payton, J., Weissberg, R.P., Durlak, J.A., Dymnicki, A.B., et al. Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. http://www.casel.org or www.lpfch.org/sel

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The Positive Impact of Social and Emotional Learning for K-8 Students (12/2008)

This report summarizes results from three large-scale reviews of research on the impact of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs on elementary and middle-school students — that is, programs that seek to promote various social and emotional skills. Collectively the three reviews included 317 studies and involved 324,303 children. Appendix C: Bibliography of Reviewed After-School Studies. Authors/Publisher: Payton, J., R. Weissberg, J. Durlak, A. Dymnicki, R. Taylor, K. Schellinger, and M. Pachan. Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) commissioned by the Lucile Packard Foundation. http://www.lpfch.org/sel/

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Engage Youth: Colorado’s Guide to Building Effective Youth-Adult Partnerships (9/2008)

This guide is a resource for any organization seeking to develop and maintain a successful youth-adult partnership effort. Youth-adult partnerships are a powerful approach to improving policies, programs and practices related to youth. Partnerships require a shift in how youth think about adults and adults think about youth, and this guide provides insight into how to make that transition successful. Authors/Publisher: Kahn, R., Lynn, J., Braga, A., Hoxworth, T., & Donovan, K. Denver, CO: Colorado Youth Partnership for Health, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. www.healthyyouthcolorado.org

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Youth Governance: How and Why It Can Help Out-of-School Time Programs Involve At-Risk Youth (6/2008)

While after-school providers often seek to provide services to high-risk youth, programs often have difficulty attracting this population. This Child Trends brief examines the role youth governance—defined as establishing youth-adult partnerships to run aspects of the after-school program—can play in targeting at-risk children and youth. The benefits of youth governance to youth, adults and the program itself are discussed, as well as concrete ways to implement such a structure. The brief also addresses the frequent challenges of youth governance and describes potential solutions. It concludes with references to various organizations working on initiatives that make use of youth governance. Author/Publisher: Bowie, Lillian and Jacinta Bronte-Tinkew. Child Trends. http://www.childtrends.org/Files//Child_Trends-2008_06_18_YouthGovernance.pdf

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More Time For Teens: Understand Teen Participation—Frequency, Intensity & Duration- B&G Clubs (3/0

Public/Private Ventures' longitudinal evaluation of Boys & Girls Clubs to understand participation among teens. Findings from the study suggest that several factors contribute to ongoing teen participation, including the variety of activities available at the Club, the ability of the Club to adjust its programming to suit the social and developmental needs of teens and the opportunity for participants to spend time with friends. Importantly, the research suggests that sustained levels of participation can be linked to positive character development and school-related outcomes, improved health behaviors and decreased risk behaviors. Author/Publisher: Arbreton, Amy , Molly Bradshaw, Rachel Metz and Jessica Sheldon with Sarah Pepper. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures. http://www.ppv.org/ppv/publication.asp?section_id=23&search;_id=&publication_id=231

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The Impact of After-School Programs That Promote Personal and Social Skills (2007)

Durlak and Weissberg evaluated the impact of a set of after-school programs that attempted to enhance youths’ personal and social skills and described the features that characterized effective programs. They found that effective programs used evidence-based approaches for their components. Programs that focused on specific social or personal skills were most successful when they were SAFE -- sequenced, active, focused and explicit. This paper is primarily a research document with summary findings about effective after-school programs. Author/Publisher: Durlak, Joseph A. and Roger P. Weissberg. Chicago: Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL). www.casel.org/downloads/ASP-Full.pdf

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Denver Guidelines for Quality Youth Programming (2006?)

This publication is based largely upon standards created by the National School Age Care Alliance (NSACA; now NAA), the City of Philadelphia, PA and the Safe and Sound Campaign in Baltimore, MD, and also the “What We Have Learned” manual of strategies and practices, created in Denver. Guidelines to enable program providers to manage their programs with skill, confidence and care - cultivating effective relationships, devising stimulating activities, and building a suitable environment - to create an enjoyable experience for the youth they serve. Authors/Publishers: Representatives of the following organizations contributed their professional expertise to this effort: Boys & Girls Clubs of Metro Denver, Catholic Charities and Community Resources of Denver, Denver Parks and Rec., Denver Public Schools Dept of Community Education, Girl Scouts - Mile Hi Council, Kaleidoscope Corner School-Age Child Care, Mi Casa Resource Center for Women, Mile High United Way, YMCA of Metro Denver, and Youth Biz. http://dce.dpsk12.org/stories/storyReader$12

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Culture and Context (Collaborative Fund for Youth-Led Social Change) (Spring 2006)

The Collaborative Fund for Youth-Led Social Change (CFYS) grew out of an effort of funders and youth practitioners to support work at the intersection of youth development, youth organizing and gender. Twelve youth organizations and 20 donors were engaged in a collaborative partnership. This report provides an overview of the themes and knowledge gained from the project, the capacity-building effort undertaken by the partners and key recommendations for the field and donors. Author/Publisher: Ms. Foundation for Women. http://ms.foundation.org/resources/publications

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Cultural Competency: What It Is and Why It Matters (2006)

This brief was prepared for grantees of the Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health. It defines cultural competency, explains its importance and discusses what it looks like at an organizational level. Author/Publisher: Olsen, Laurie, Jhumpa Bhattacharya and Amy Scharf. Lucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health. http://www.lpfch.org/programs/research.html

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Beyond Safe Havens: A Synthesis of 20 Years of Research on the Boys & Girls Clubs (9/2005)

Reviewed 20 years of research of Boys & Girls Clubs of America programming. The report outlines the strategies that programs have implemented to contribute toward success as well as the challenges that were encountered. The review of Boys & Girls Clubs of America programs identified several strategies to hire and retain high-quality staff, including: recruiting staff skilled for specific programs, promoting personnel from within the agency, ensuring the buy-in of staff to any new programming and providing sufficient staff training. Author/Publisher: Arbreton, Amy J.A., Jessica Sheldon and Carla Herrera. Philadelphia: Public Private Ventures. http://www.ppv.org/ppv/publications/assets/187_publication.pdf

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Family Strengthening in Youth Development (5/2005)

This brief discusses how youth-serving programs can involve parents as decision-makers. It presents strategies for how national organizations and initiatives serving youth have empowered parents as partners in their work. It provides an overview of how six organizations have involved families and then provides recommendations for increasing family involvement for other agencies delivering youth programming. Author/Publisher: Family Strengthening Policy Center. Policy Brief No. 6. An Initiative of the National Human Services Assembly. www.nassembly.org/fspc/documents/PolicyBriefs/Brief6.pdf

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Addressing Equity and Diversity: Tools for Change in After-School and Youth Programs (April 2005)

This toolkit (only Introduction is attached here) consists of specific strategies and tools after-school programs can implement to expand their diversity and equity efforts to engage more effectively with a range of children and families. The document emerged from a three-year study of after-school programs across the country (the research results of which are published in Pursuing the Promise). This evaluation revealed five strategies programs use to successfully engage diverse youth: 1) inclusive and culturally responsive programming; 2) development of strong identities; 3) intergroup experiences and cross-cultural understanding; 4) recognizing and challenging inequities; and 5) healing the wounds of exclusion and discrimination. The toolkit offers specific ways for programs to reflect on their current strategies, understand participants' backgrounds and needs, and create an action plan. Author/Publisher: California Tomorrow.

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High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) - 2005 Report

The ultimate goal of HSSSE is to document, describe, and strengthen student engagement in educationally purposeful activities in secondary schools nationally. HSSSE provides information that can be used to generate discussions on teaching and learning and guide student improvement activities. HSSSE is a powerful tool in the assessment arena that can complement performance tests. HSSSE data can identify student engagement and school features that affect outcomes. Our primary activity is to conduct an annual survey to assess the extent to which high school students engage in educational practices associated with high levels of learning and development. This data is especially powerful because it pertains to school features that teachers and administrators can improve upon quickly, and often inexpensively, to facilitate student learning and engagement. Authors/Publisher: Center for Evaluation & Education Policy, Indiana University. http://www.indiana.edu/~ceep/hssse

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Supporting Student Success: A Governors Guide to Extra Learning Opportunities (2005)

Governors can employ a number of strategies to support improved ELO quantity and quality in their states: Make explicit connections between ELOs and related policy priorities; Build a state policy infrastructure to support collaboration and coordination; Coordinate funding and leverage new resources for ELOs; Engage new partners to support ELOs; Build an accountability system for improved ELO quality. Authors/Publisher: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices. http://www.nga.org

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Moving Beyond the Barriers: Attracting and Sustaining Youth Participation in OST Programs. (7/2004)

This brief draws from implementation and impact evaluations to develop a set of promising strategies to attract and sustain youth participation in out-of-school-time programs. Author/Publisher: Harvard Family Research Project. No. 6

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After-School Initiative’s Toolkit for Evaluating Positive Youth Development (6/2004)

This toolkit includes evaluation question sets that staff of an after-school program could use to assess youth outcomes. It provides question sets to measure outcomes common to after-school programs promoting youth development. The questions cover 45 youth outcomes in the following eight areas: 1) academic success, 2) arts and recreation, 3) community involvement, 4) cultural competency, 5) life skills, 6) positive life choices, 7) positive core values and 8) sense of self. In addition to questions, the toolkit provides tips on developing and administering surveys. Author/Publisher: Toolkit developed by The Colorado Trust and National Research Center, Inc. Denver, CO: The Colorado Trust. http://www.coloradotrust.org/attachments/0000/2849/ASIToolkitJun04.pdf

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School Completion and Student Engagement: Information and Strategies for Parents (2004)

Short Brief: High motivation and engagement in learning have consistently been linked to reduced dropout rates and increased levels of school success. Yet, year after year teachers and parents struggle to keep students engaged in school and motivated to succeed. Numerous studies have revealed that student engagement in school declines significantly for many students as they progress through school. Therefore, it is critical that both parents and educators reach out to children who are disengaged from school and consequently unlikely to succeed. Authors/Publisher: Amanda Blount Morse, Sandra L. Christenson, and Camilla A. Lehr. National Association of School Psychologists. http://www.nasponline.org

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Finding Out What Matters for Youth: Key Links in a Community Action Framework for Youth Dev. (2002)

The Community Action Framework for Youth Development was developed to describe the pathways that lead youth to positive outcomes and highlight what needs the most attention. It looks at whether and how developmental outcomes (learning to be productive, learning to connect, and learning to navigate) affect early adult outcomes (economic self-sufficiency, healthy family and social relationships, and community involvement). Gambone et al found that youth who had at least one highly supportive relationship with an adult did better than youth who had none. Author/Publisher: Gambone, M.A, A.M. Klem and J.P. Connell http://www.ydsi.org/YDSI/pdf/WhatMatters.pdf

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development (2002)

This book focuses on community programs for youth and examines what is known about their design, implementation, and evaluation. The book identifies the set of personal and social assets that increase the healthy development and well-being of adolescents. It then discusses the settings that promote healthy development of those assets. The book defines supportive relationships as those that include qualities of emotional support (e.g., being caring and responsive) and instrumental support (e.g., providing guidance that is useful to young people). It discusses both what a supportive relationship is and some practices to develop supportive relationships. Author/Publisher: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. Jacquelynne Eccles and Jennifer A. Gootman, eds. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NOTE: Only Executive Summary attached. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10022.html

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Developing Adolescents: A Reference for Professionals (2002)

This resource was developed to help professionals understand crucial aspects of normal adolescent development and relate more effectively to the adolescents with whom they work. The guide discusses the physical, cognitive, emotional, social and behavioral development of adolescents. It also notes the importance of understanding the cultural and ethnic groups that are served so competent services can be provided. The guide discusses the development of personal identity and self-concept and the importance of developing a strong ethnic identity in order for ethnic minorities to develop self-esteem. It provides the research background necessary to understand the need for cultural competence within an organization. Author/Publisher: Gentry, Jacquelyn and Mary Campbell. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. www.apa.org/pi/pii/develop.pdf

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Cultural Competency: The Role of After-School Programs in Supporting Diverse Youth (2002)

This document was created to support after-school programs funded by the Colorado Trust After-School Initiative. It discusses the development of youth in relation to culture and identity development, explores the social, civic and moral development of youth, and provides ideas and resources for after-school programs that want to explore issues of culture and diversity. Author/Publisher: The Colorado Trust.

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Positive Youth Development in the United States (1998)

NOTE: Only the Table of Contents is included here. Go to website for full document. Chapter Two of the report, “Positive Youth Development in the United States,” provides a list of criteria for positive youth development including: 1) promote bonding, 2) foster resilience, 3) promote social competence, 4) promote emotional competence, 5) promote cognitive competence, 6) promote behavioral competence, 7) promote moral competence, 8) foster self-determination, 9) foster spirituality, 10) foster self-efficacy, 11) foster clear and positive identity, 12) foster belief in the future, 13) provide recognition for positive behavior, 14) provide opportunities for prosocial involvement and 15) foster prosocial norms. Author/Publisher: Catalano, Richard F., M. Lisa Berglund, Jeanne A.M. Ryan, Heather S. Lonczak and J. David Hawkins. US Department of Health and Human Services

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Adolescent Time Use, Risky Behavior, and Outcomes: An Analysis of National Data (9/1995)

The study found that U.S. teenagers have significant discretionary time available to them, and for most, that time is not being filled with activities that build their skills or character. Authors/Publisher: Nicholas Zill, Christine Winquist Nord, and Laura Spencer Loomis. Westat, Inc.

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What Differences Do Racial, Ethnic & Cultural Differences Make in Youth Development Programs? (1992)

This paper provides an overview of the research on the role that race, ethnicity and culture play in youth development, analyzes the implications for the design of youth development programs and makes recommendations to program planners. The author includes program examples and highlights the implications of her findings. Author/Publisher: Camino, Linda A. Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. Washington, DC. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED362608

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